We are absolutely delighted and very proud to be able to bring you the story behind the return to flight of the SHAR or Sea Harrier by LtCol USMC Art Nalls (ret).

Art has given us his full permission to publish this article here, along with the accompanying photographs and all copyright remains with him.

This the story up to and including the first flight of a civilian registered Harrier.

Former Marine test pilot Art Nalls with the surplus Royal Navy FA2 Sea Harrier he has just bought from aircraft broker Richard Everett. Nalls was photographed with the aircraft at its temporary hanger at the former Bentwaters RAF base near Ipswich, England. Nalls will ship the aircraft to the US where he put it on the airshow circuit.

THE STORY OF THE SHAR

We never would have been approved to fly the Harrier as a civilian airplane, unless we had flown them in the Marine Corps.

This is a photo aboard the USS Nassau, LHA-4, with VMA-231, around 1982-3.  I don’t know the exact date but this was one of the multiple shipboard deployments I made with that squadron.

Because of the pilot’s unique helmet design, we know this is LtCol H.W. Blot, the squadron Commanding Officer.

He later retired as a Lieutenant General (3 stars), and still offers advice to us from time to time, from his experience.

Because of this and other training, and my later experience as a test pilot and maintenance officer, the FAA trusted us to fly the SHAR, with some very strict limitations.   The SHAR we fly is basically stock on the outside, but has been completely demilitarized on the inside to comply.  It has no radar, no weapons system, and no mission computer.  Instead, it has civilian GPS, civilian radios, and civilian avionics.

This is just after we completed the deal with Everett Aero  to purchase the Sea Harrier, late 2005.  You can see that it was basically complete airplane.  In fact, Everetts guaranteed they could get the parts necessary to fly the airplane, if anything were not up to FAA standards, and any spares or support equipment.  We needed jacks, trestles, a tow bar, and drop tanks, all supplied by Everetts.

This was the very beginning of many months of long, hard work to get the airplane shipped, assembled, checked and modified to fly as a civilian warbird in the U.S.

Former Marine test pilot Art Nalls with the surplus Royal Navy FA2 Sea Harrier he has just bought from aircraft broker Richard Everett. Nalls was photographed with the aircraft at its temporary hanger at the former Bentwaters RAF base near Ipswich, England. Nalls will ship the aircraft to the US where he put it on the airshow circuit.
The FA-2 Sea Harrier still wearing the plastic wrap applied for shipping protection before leaving England on the road near the airport in Georgetown, DE. 2006

You can also see that the airplane was in excellent condition. It had just been painted, and the engine had 2.3 hours on it.

2.3 hours is actually BETTER than zero hours, since the airplane had completed a post-maintenance check flight, prior to being made surplus by the MoD.

Once the SHAR was unloaded at Georgetown, DE in early 2006, we had a chance to really look over the airplane and assess the condition for flying.  A quorum of mechanics attacked the airplane and the publications, and they came to the conclusion this was indeed a potentially flyable airplane.  I suspected that all along, but it was comforting to get the opinions of the actual mechanics who would be doing the work.

Crew works with crane to lift the FA-2 Sea Harrier aircraft off the trailer. Georgetown, DE. 2006

The bad news was the mechanics couldn’t drive all the way  to Gerogetown and work on it, weekend after weekend. There just weren’t enough hours in a weekend to do that so the consensus was to MOVE the airplane to St. Mary’s County, Maryland.  That way, work could be done after hours and on weekends.  It needed to be accessible to the crew, so we boxed the plane and parts, loaded them on trailers and shipped them across the bay to St. Mary’s, where it has remained ever since.

After arriving at Capt. W.F. Dure Regional Airport in Leonardtown, MD, the Sea Harrier is removed from the shipping trailer and the wing is partly attached. 2006

Next, we had to find a way to assemble the airplane. The wing is a single piece that attaches to the fuselage with 6, very strong bolts.  They are close tolerance, precision fit.

As is usual, 4 of the six bolts slid right in.  But the two  remaining bolts did not line up.  Was the wing warped?  Did the wing get bent during shipping?  We did not know, but decided NOT to use the big hammer approach.  Call in the Marines………

An ad in a local Cherry Point, North Carolina newspaper received instant response.  We had a crew of Marines who would gladly drive 6 hours to work all weekend and return in time to do Marine stuff, for meager pay.  They wanted the challenge to do something no one had ever done – by flying a civilian Harrier.

Art Nalls with Marines from Harrier Squadron VMA-223 during the airshow at New River Marine Corps Air Station near Jacksonville, NC. The Marines have just learned that Nalls is a former squadron member and their Harriers are parked beside his L-39 jet. In the background, CH-53s make an approach during a simulated tactical assault. The Sea Stallion is the Marines primary heavy lift helicopter and it is to be replaced by the V-22 Osprey. 2006

The wings assembly was much easier than we suspected.  The wing was NOT warped, but the bolts rarely align perfectly.  The solution is to find someone with a large rear end and have them bounce up and down on the wing tip, while another mechanic gently persuades the bolts home with a ball peen hammer.  Finally, a job I was built to do, so I assumed the wing tip as the bouncer.  A few quick bounces, and the bolts were seated. So for the next several weekends , we were invaded by the Marines.  They took charge of the situation and went over the Harrier, stem to stern.

Marines drove up from their base at Cherry Point, NC during their free time. They inspected everything.  They determined that even though this was a different model of Harrier than what they were used to seeing, it was more similar to the AV-8B than different.  The basic systems were the same – engine, hydraulics, electrical, fuel, landing gear, etc.  Even the servicing panels were in similar positions, so they felt right at home working on the Sea Harrier. Once we had a ‘complete’ airplane, they pronounced it ready to start the engine, after sending me to procure 5 gallons of alcohol.

When Marines ask for ‘5 gallons of alcohol’  I must admit I questioned the purpose.  We were way too premature for a celebration.  But it turns out the alcohol was to throw down the engine intake with the engine turning, to dissolve residue from mice, which had inhabited the engine bay.  It would clean the compressor blades, so 5 gallons was produced. But the first planned engine start, did not occur that day.  When I pressed the engine start button, there was absolute silence.

The FA-2 Sea Harrier belonging to Art Nalls with Marines who volunteered to help Nalls get the surplus British jet ready to fly. The Marines drove up from their base at Cherry Point, NC during their free time. They belong to the same squadron, VMA-223 as Nalls. Leonardtown, NJ 2006

A small crowd had gathered to witness the first engine start, but as the mechs took off panels to inspect, the crowd slowly dispersed over the next 2 hours. After 2 hours of searching for circuit breakers, loose wires, and anything that could halt the start, someone announced, “we need to check the start/sequencing unit.” Actually, as a former maintenance officer, I was quite familiar with the little box.  I said,” take off the port panel in front of the port cold nozzle.  (The unit is about the size of a pack of cigarettes and has two wires going to it)  Hit it with a chock!

As Art Nalls sits in the cockpit, the crew working on his FA2 Sea Harrier try to find out why the engine start sequence wont initiate during the first attempt to start the engine in the US Leonardtown, MD 2006

To our surprise, the box was missing.  I also knew from experience, that there was no way we were starting that day.  We needed to get the unit from the UK, so we declared partial victory and sent the Marines back to home base.  On the following Monday, a quick call to Everett Aero and they had the part on the way.  It was scheduled to arrive before the next  weekend and we’d be back on track.

Once the start sequencing unit arrived from the UK, it was installed in about 5 minutes.  We also obtained a ‘spare’ that had been hiding in a desk drawer at Cherry Point, so we were reasonable certain we had that part of the puzzle complete.

Just to try it out, with the airplane in the hangar, I climbed in the cockpit and started the sequence.  To my immediate surprise, the GTS started its sequence, while in the hangar!  I immediately shut it down.  We towed the airplane outside.  There was no sense starting a fire in the hangar!

Once outside, the appropriate number of 25 fire bottles manned and ready, the fire hose standing by, and the ground crew spring-loaded to run away in case the whole thing exploded, I initiated a GTS start. This was to cycle oil up to the starter, fuel to the fuel manifold and get things primed and ready for a ‘real’ start.  We had fuelled the airplane with 50 gallons of jet fuel, the week prior, so there was still enough fuel in the tanks to do a very quick start. The GTS fired off normally and the main engine started its sequence by rotating.  The RPM and hydraulic gages immediately registered pressure and the control stick moved from the side to the center of the cockpit.  The blow in doors along the side of the intake were sucked in, which is all NORMAL.

Now that the engine was turning and had compression, and we had spark with the igniters.  All we needed was fuel, so I moved the throttle to idle.  The Pegasus immediately lit off and achieved a normal idle, all perfectly normal.  Temps, pressures, indications, were all normal, with the exception of the electrical system.  They system was not charging and there were several warning / caution lights indicating that.  That would not be resolved until subsequent starts, but for now, it was OK.

The ground crew checked over the top and bottom of the engine and declared it basically leak-free.   That lasted all of 11 seconds until we flamed out, due to lack of fuel.

We used 50 gallons of jet fuel in a single start and it lasted 11 seconds. 

 This was a precursor of what was to come….

With Art Nalls in the cockpit of his FA2 Sea Harrier, the engine is successfully started for the first time in the US. As the engine shuts down, the work crew breaks into a series of hugging and "high fives." Leonardtown, MD 2006

The first start was both good and bad.  It was good that almost everything worked as it should.  With the exception of the electrical system, all the hydraulic pressures and engine temperatures were normal, but the electrical system as not.  Cory Duffield spent hours in the manuals and schematics to trouble shoot the problem, but found nothing obvious. He began re-seating cannon plugs and eventually found one that was not fully seated.  When the engine was restarted, everything was normal and there were NO warning caution lights, despite numerous panels that were not installed.  It was actually far better than we had hoped, at this point. So with another visit from the fuel truck, we started the Pegasus and began running through the system checks – nose wheel steering, flaps, ailerons, rudder, brakes, etc

When I lowered the nozzles, the crew checked over the whole airplane for reaction control system (RCS) leaks.  This is how we control the airplane in the hover and at low airspeed. After about 20 seconds, someone noted that the asphalt under the airplane was suddenly very shinny, so I was directed to move the nozzles aft IMMEDIATELY!!  We narrowly averted a huge problem, by damaging the airport asphalt.  Lesson learned to NOT do that again!  So far, so good, so the ground crew gave me clearance to taxi…

Even with no radios at this point, I taxied to the single runway at St. Mary’s.  With no other airplanes in the pattern, I took the runway and began a series of engine acceleration checks. We check the engine acceleration times between 27% and 55% RPM before each takeoff.

With Art Nalls in the cockpit of his FA2 Sea Harrier, the aircraft taxies for the first time in the US. Nalls took the aircraft down to the main runway for a series of acceleration tests on the engine before taxing back to his hanger where he was mobbed by crew and onlookers. Leonardtown, MD 2006
With Art Nalls in the cockpit of his FA2 Sea Harrier, the aircraft taxies for the first time in the US. Nalls took the aircraft down to the main runway for a series of acceleration tests on the engine before taxing back to his hanger where he was mobbed by crew and onlookers. Leonardtown, MD 2006

With this version of the Harrier, we have a hydro-mechanical fuel control.  That means the fuel control has various chambers and valves to meter fuel in the correct proportions to produce the desired performance, in this case normal idle and normal acceleration times from idle to 55% RPM.

Without the canopy installed, I did not go beyond 55% RPM.  There is a risk of the engine ingesting anything loose from the cockpit, including anything loose on me personally, plus the brakes will not hold the airplane beyond 55%.  Those top-end accel checks would have to wait until we completely installed all the missing panels.

So on the active runway, with the nozzles, steering, and hydraulics all checking perfectly normal, I set the power at 55% and let the brakes go.  The acceleration was tremendous, even at only mid-throttle RPM! I can’t tell you how much I wanted to be able to accelerate to full power, but that would have to wait for another day, with the canopy installed and all the panels installed.  We have many more checks to do before we were ready for that.

With Art Nalls in the cockpit of his FA2 Sea Harrier, the aircraft taxies for the first time in the US. Nalls took the aircraft down to the main runway for a series of acceleration tests on the engine before taxing back to his hanger where he was mobbed by crew and onlookers. Leonardtown, MD 2006
With Art Nalls in the cockpit of his FA2 Sea Harrier, the aircraft taxies for the first time in the US. Nalls took the aircraft down to the main runway for a series of acceleration tests on the engine before taxing back to his hanger where he was mobbed by crew and onlookers. Leonardtown, MD 2006
With Art Nalls in the cockpit of his FA2 Sea Harrier, the engine is successfully started for the first time in the US. As the engine shuts down, the work crew breaks into a series of hugging and "high fives." Leonardtown, MD 2006

But we could start to see that this was NOT a fantasy project.  We knew that we were not all that far from being able to actually fly this aircraft.

With a viable engine and airframe that would at least taxi, we knew we were getting closer and closer to actually flying.  With the canopy and all the missing panels installed, it was time for more taxi checks, including engine acceleration runs to full power.

The SHAR engine bay, showing the fuel control The Rolls Royce Pegasus, MK 104 installed, has a hydro-mechanical fuel control. That means no computers, but metering valves, chambers, and all sorts of contraptions to ensure the right amount of fuel makes it to the engine, under all flight circumstances from high altitude to the hover.  It’s a marvel of engineering in itself and about the size of a VW engine.  There are adjustments all over the fuel control.

With a stopwatch mounted to the right canopy rail, we time every engine throttle slam before every take off.  We time from 27%, which

is a normal idle, to 55%, which is all that the brakes will hold.  Beyond 55%, the brakes will skid, scraping off valuable tire rubber as the plane skids.  Since we’re paying for the tires, we want to preserve as much of them as possible.

Depending upon the time for this engine acceleration check, we can adjust the fuel control to give the proper ‘slope’ of the time vs. RPMS curve.  This is only the bottom half of the accel check. We must also check the time from 55% to 103% or 107% with water injection, too.  Those accel checks can be “sporty” at the least.  The reason is with one hand on the throttle, and one hand on the stopwatch, there’s nothing on the control stick.  The airplane is pointed down the runway and left to it’s own Newtonian, response, which is to accelerate down the runway like a bat out of Hell.  Like I said, it can be “sporty.”

Add to this, I had not experienced the full-force acceleration of the Pegasus engine in about 18 years, and we had very little fuel in the airplane.  It was every bit of a rocket ship.

I recall airplanes in the fleet that would require quite a bit of adjusting to get the accels right.  This was done at a high-power ramp, with the airplane chained to a concrete pad.  The holdback chain is massive, designed to ensure that the airplane doesn’t move one inch, even at high power.  I recall it’s actually a ship’s anchor chain, with some modifications.

Unfortunately, we didn’t have any of that.  Our checks would have to with the airplane pointed down a 4,000 ft runway, which in Harrier terms, is quite small.  Once I started moving, stopping before the end of the runway would be a trick.  If anything went wrong, there was very little time to react.

But our engine accelerations were right on the money.  Everything was perfect, as far as I could tell, which was just fine because I didn’t want to be doing too many of these engine runs on this short runway.

With all the systems checking good so far, we were ready to jack the airplane and start the first of a near endless cycle of landing gear retractions and extensions, along with cycling the flight controls. The hydraulic system had not been properly exercised in several years and we expected to have leaks, but there were none to speak of.  So far, everything was checking out just fine.

Our next big move, was to get the ejection seat either re-activated, or a current, live ejection seat installed.

Our search for viable ejection systems presented a couple of challenges.  First, no one wanted to touch this with a 10 foot pole, especially Martin Baker.  After multiple attempts to persuade anyone to help us met with dead ends, I sent an email directly to Martin Baker.  It must have reached the highest levels because within 20 minutes I received a phone call.

The person, very high in the organization, called and said he admired the challenge we were attempting.  Admire is a strong word and I take it he didn’t throw it around lightly.  However, the realities of modern business, especially one that employs thousands and is responsible for the safe escape of military airplanes all over the world, simply cannot accept the liability supporting a legacy airplane involves.  Essentially, the lawyers stopped him.

I understood fully and soon realized that persuading them to help was useless.  We’d have to go another way.

That led me from one person to another, all involved as US government support contractors in various projects, that require viable escape systems.  I found a person who not only admired what we were doing, but jumped in with both feet offering to help.   His knowledge and experience with escape systems covers a wide spectrum of aircraft and he is one of those people who ‘knows everyone.’   I am intentionally NOT mentioning names here, to protect them.

We located, procured, and shipped a viable ejection seat to St. Mary’s.   I knew it would work, since it’s the exact same seat the U.S. Marine Corps used in our Harriers.  The UK used Martin-Baker, the U.S. used Stencil.  We had to modify one attachment bolt from the seat/airframe interface from metric to SAE.  The Harrier is SAE.  That modification required simply reaming out a fitting a very, very small amount to achieve a safe fit.  Other than that, the seat slipped right in, slid down the rails and locked into place.  Almost like it was made for it, because it was.  I had and have extreme confidence that if the seat has to be employed, it will fire up the rails just as smoothly.  Let’s hope we never find out…

With a viable seat, a viable engine and airframe, workable civilian radios, we needed the FAA to sign us off, so we called for an inspection.

A team of inspectors arrived from our FSDO to go over the whole airplane.  They required that all the panels be off the airplane.

The panels are all numbered.  The highest number I saw was 211, although there may have been a couple we did not remove, but Christian, Rich, and Pete spent weeks, removing dozens of screws, to get the panels off.  Some hadn’t been removed in years, but we had our marching orders.

Side view of Art Nall's FA-2 Sea Harrier with inspection panels and front nozzle removed. 2006

When the FAA inspector team arrived, we had all the maintainers on hand to answer questions.  We showed them our spares, our tools, our manuals and of course the airplane.  We answered tons of questions, about how the systems worked and how we went about determining if they were safe for operation.  (Airworthy has a specific meaning to the FAA). One of the team actually had Harrier experience.  He proclaimed the airplane in fantastic shape — better in fact than some he’d seen flying in the fleet!

After a couple of hours, climbing over the airplane, the senior inspector took a seat and broke open his “how to inspect” book.  It looked like the New York phone book.  We all thought he was searching for that one regulation we missed, but that was not the case at all.  When we asked, if there was any more, he stated he was searching to find IF we were required to display the N-number. Since the airplane was historic, that requirement may be waived.  As that didn’t matter to us in the least, he closed the book and said he’d be back in a few weeks to issue our papers and we’d be done.  Except to do a current weight and balance and attach all the missing panels.  We can’t fly with all those panels missing!!

Six months later, with all the panels attached – -with new screws — and a weight and balance calculated, we were finally ready to get airborne.

With a new weight and balance, all the panels and systems, including the electrical system, all functionally checked, and after numerous taxi checks, we were ready to get airborne.  Our limitations were received from the FAA, and all the paperwork was approved, at least giving me a ‘learner’s permit’ to fly it for 60 days.  Since there were no trainers, no instructors, and no previous Harriers flying in the civilian world, much was left to me to come up with a safe and viable plan to get the airplane airborne and flight tested – -within very strict and stringent FAA boundaries.

Powered Lift was then a new category of flying machine added to the FAA regulations and the Harrier fit perfectly into that category, but much of that was political.  That category applies to certificated airplanes, not Experimental certificated airplanes.  Again, everything we were doing was the first time it had ever been done, so we agreed to walk slowly and in direct step with the FAA.  All eyes were upon us – – literally!

Art Nalls and his sea harrier taxis September 2007 at St Mary's County airport. California, MD

I wrote a very limited test plan for the first couple of flights to evaluate the handling characteristics of the airplane, especially for operating from a very, very short landing field. St. Mary’s County is only 4.000 feet long, and it’s ALL ASPHALT.  Harriers eat asphalt almost as quickly as jet fuel.  In addition, there are residential areas very close to the airport. We had already gained much attention from the locals because every time we started the Pegasus engine, everyone in three counties knew it.  We were going to have some trouble keeping this much of a secret.

We had several dates planned for the first flight, but weather and technical issues prevented us from actually getting airborne on those dates.  Remember, we really only work in earnest on the weekends, so we continued to slide the first flight from week to week.  All the time, we’re answering the question, “when are you guys going to fly?”  The universal answer, and the subject of many jokes, was “Two weeks.”

Finally, the sun, moon, stars and high tide all aligned for the first flight.  A test card written and vetted by other test pilots and the team, and a safety chase airplane was available. Experienced test pilot, Ricardo Traven (chief experimental test pilot for the Boeing F/A-18) volunteered his time and personal Beech Baron aircraft for a photographer and safety chase. A ground safety team would be in place, with two-way radio communication, and a truckload of fire extinguishers, in addition to the local Hollywood Fire Department, were physically on site. We thought we had covered every possible contingency.

Our plan was to get the safety chase airplane airborne, circle the field once, then swoop down for what we call an ‘airborne pickup.’  This is when the safety plane just passed the test plane during its take off, so the test airplane can safely and efficiently join with the chase plane in formation.  When done correctly, the two airplanes are in formation (with the test airplane in the lead) by the end of the 4,000 foot runway.

Ricardo took off and turned downwind in his Barron, with a photographer Tim Wright in the rear seat, and cameras rolling.   I took the small runway in take off position, with the engine checks complete and holding at 55% RPM, ready for his call to slam full power. Joe Anderson was acting as LSO on the ground, with the maintenance team at his side, in case needed for any ground emergency.  All radios and checks were normal. For the next few seconds, I had a chance to think and uttered the Test Pilot’s prayer – “Please Lord, don’t let me ______up!”

Nearing the point for my throttle slam, Ricardo transmitted, “10 Seconds!” on the radio.  Throttle slam was my point of no return.  Up until then, I could just stop everything and take if back to the hangar.  But once that throttle goes forward, there is little chance of a successful abort and I’m probably going flying, unless Sir Newton says differently. For a brief few seconds, I thought about not going flying.  Flying is risky.  But in those few seconds, I realized that I had done this thousands of times, spent numerous hours in this particular cockpit, had studied this particular airplane, the systems and emergency procedures, and there was no one in the world better prepared to do this than myself.

Three, two, one, SLAM full power!

The Pegasus roared to life, as only a Pegasus can, and I was rocketing down the runway.  I reached 110 knots, which was my target airspeed, in a matter of only a very few seconds and a few hundred feet.   My left hand went from the throttle to the nozzle lever.  At the target airspeed, I rotated the nozzles and the airplane was airborne.

Ricardo passed on my right, just as I lifted off – – a PERFECT pickup!

We planned to leave the gear down, just in case the first landing had to immediately follow the first take off.  We didn’t want to take a chance and perhaps ‘forget’ to lower the landing gear.

Forgetting to lower the gear has been done by far better pilots than myself, so why take a chance?  Leave them down for the whole first flight, which we did. I noticed immediately, that the airplane was a bit ‘squirrelly.’  It was sloppy and  loose, in all three axes, and there was a RED LIGHT on the left console.  Red lights are never good, but this one was for the auto-stab system.  Thank goodness for all that cockpit time, because I knew of the light, and knew what the correction was — turn the auto-stab system to the OH-EN position (ON).  Problem solved and the light was OH-YOU-TEE. (OUT).  The airplane settled down and started flying like a normal, well-behaved Harrier.

I also noted that there was a decided lack of chatter on the radio, as in none.  The radios were perfect before take off, and now there was nothing.  Fortunately, a No-Radio approach was considered and the chase airplane made all the appropriate radio transmissions.

I completed the tasks, as briefed and returned to the airfield for landing.  You may have heard Navy pilots describe their first carrier landing as landing on a postage stamp.  My first view of the 4,000 ft strip from the Harrier cockpits gave me the exact, same impression.  The airfield looked EXTREMELY small!

I turned downwind to set up for a variable nozzle, slow landing, targeting a 90-knot touchdown in the first 500 feet of the runway.

I was proud that I hit both of those test targets and could have easily turned off at the mid-field mark, with 2,000 feet remaining.

Not wanting to skid tires or waste valuable brakes, I slowed all the  way to the end of the runway and turned off.

Art Nalls flies his FA2 Sea Harrier during its first flight since arriving in the United States. Nalls returns to the where he took off at the St. Mary's County Regional airport. Nov 10, 2007 Leonardtown, MD 2007

WE HAD DONE IT!  Good Ole’ Boys from St. Mary’s County had now successfully flown a Harrier under civilian registry! Although this had been done years ago in the UK with the British Aerospace G-VTOL company demonstrator, no one had done this in the U.S.

After a quick, post-flight debrief and quick celebration, we prepared the airplane for a second flight, the next day.  That included removing all the extra comm gear that caused the no-radio situation, fixing a fuel leak that we suspected would happen at full power.  Once they were fixed, we put the airplane in the hangar and adjourned to the bar for a proper celebration.

A proper celebration included not only dinner and drinks, and toasts to the greatest civilian Harrier Team, but also to the United States Marines.  The first flight just happened to take place on the MARINE CORPS BIRTHDAY, 10 November, 2007.

 

By all accounts, the first flight was an astounding success!  We had managed to not only get the airplane in the United States, certified, approved, and ground tested, but we flew it!

 

Copyright Art Nalls